• Water Mask
  • Landsat

LEGEND


Access to Water

Access to water measures the percentage of population without access to improved drinking-water sources. Higher values indicate areas where people have less access to safe drinking water, and consequently higher reputational risks to those not using water in an equitable way.

 

Airports

Airports in the Greater Mekong Subregion. 165 airports including attributes (name, type, ICAO and IATA code).

 

Available Blue Water

Available blue water (Ba) is the total amount of water available to a catchment before any uses are satisfied. It is calculated as all water flowing into the catchment from upstream catchments minus upstream consumptive use plus runoff in the catchment.

 

Baseline Water Stress

Baseline water stress measures total annual water withdrawals (municipal, industrial, and agricultural) expressed as a percent of the total annual available flow. Higher values indicate more competition among users.

AidData’s Chinese Official Finance in Three Ecologically Sensitive Areas, Level 1, Version 1.01

Description This is the 1.0.1 version of the Level 1 product, of a sub-nationally georeferenced dataset of Chinese official finance activities between 2000 and 2014 in three ecologically sensitive regions -- the Tropical Andes in South America, the Great Lakes of Africa, and the Mekong Delta in Southeast Asia.
Source(s) BenYishay, Ariel, Bradley Parks, Daniel Runfola, Rachel Trichler. 2016. Forest Cover Impacts of Chinese Development Projects in Ecologically Sensitive Areas. AidData Working Paper #32. Williamsburg, VA: AidData. http://aiddata.org/blog/aiddata-publishes-geocoded-dataset-on-chinese-financing-in-ecological-hotspots
Date of data 01/30/2017
Completeness Please refer to the Cavets section of the README file attached in the resources.
License ODC-BY-1.0

Consumptive Use

Consumptive use is the portion of all water withdrawn that is consumed through evaporation, incorporation into a product, or pollution, such that it is no longer available for reuse. Non-consumptive use is the remainder of withdrawals that is not consumed and instead returns to ground or surface water bodies.

 

Distribution of Mangroves (2011)

This dataset shows the distribution of mangrove forests, derived from earth observation satellite imagery for the Greater Mekong Subregion including Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar.

Domanant Soil Types

Polygons of dominant soil types in the Greater Mekong Subregion, according to FAO classifications (2007)

 

Economic Corridors

Transboundary roads declared Greater Mekiong Subregion transport corridors (existing, planned, potential).

 

Flood Occurrence

Flood Occurrence is the number of floods recorded from 1985 to 2011.

 

Freshwater Ecoregions

Freshwater species and habitats are, on average around the world, more imperiled than their terrestrial counterparts. Yet, large-scale conservation planning efforts have rarely targeted freshwater biodiversity. This inattention is due in part to the fact that, compared to better-studied terrestrial taxa, there has been a severe lack of comprehensive, synthesized data on the distributions of freshwater species. Existing worldwide species-level data have covered only the largest river basins or select hotspots, rather than all inland waters. Additionally, these data syntheses have made little attempt to describe biogeographic patterns.

Lower Oder Valley National Park, Brandenburg, Germany. (c) WWF-Canon / Chris MartinFreshwater Ecoregions of the World (FEOW) is a collaborative project providing the first global biogeographic regionalization of the Earth's freshwater biodiversity, and synthesizing biodiversity and threat data for the resulting ecoregions. We define a freshwater ecoregion as a large area encompassing one or more freshwater systems that contains a distinct assemblage of natural freshwater communities and species. The freshwater species, dynamics, and environmental conditions within a given ecoregion are more similar to each other than to those of surrounding ecoregions and together form a conservation unit.

The freshwater ecoregion map serves as a complement to the global terrestrial and marine ecoregion maps and differs from them in that freshwater species (primarily fish) and freshwater processes drove the map delineation. A detailed description of the delineation methodology is available in Abell et al. (2008).

 

Freshwater Ecoregions of the Mekong Basin

Description This dataset was created from Hydrosheds level 3 dataset to represent approximate freshwater ecoregions of the Mekong basin. Based upon the WWF freshwater ecoregions dataset which is defined as, a large area encompassing one or more freshwater systems that contains a distinct assemblage of natural freshwater communities and species. The freshwater species, dynamics, and environmental conditions within a given ecoregion are more similar to each other than to those of surrounding ecoregions and together form a conservation unit.
Source(s) The dataset is combination of the 1. Hydrosheds level 3 - World map of the major hydrological basins (Derived from HydroSHEDS) 2011-02-02T11:44:00 Creation First edition. Digital map http://ref.data.fao.org/map?entryId=7707086d-af3c-41cc-8aa5-323d8609b2d1&tab=metadata 2. Freshwater Ecoregions data. Freshwater Ecoregions: Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. 2008. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403-414.
Date of data 10/02/2016
Completeness This dataset is not complete.
License CC-BY-SA-4.0

GMS Transboundary Biodiversity Landscapes

Boundary of GMS Transboundary Biodiversity Landscapes a project of the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund and WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions.

Hydro basins level 3

Hydro-basins provide hydrographic data layers that allow for the derivation of watershed boundaries for any given location based on the near-global, high-resolution SRTM digital elevation model. Watersheds were delineated in a consistent manner at different scales, and a hierarchical sub-basin breakdown was created following the topological concept of the Pfafstetter coding system (Verdin & Verdin 1999). The resulting polygon layers are termed HydroBASINS and represent a subset of the HydroSHEDS database. There are 12 levels. Level 3 represent major river systems from headwaters to coast.

 

Hydro basins level 6

Hydro-basins provide hydrographic data layers that allow for the derivation of watershed boundaries for any given location based on the near-global, high-resolution SRTM digital elevation model. Watersheds were delineated in a consistent manner at different scales, and a hierarchical sub-basin breakdown was created following the topological concept of the Pfafstetter coding system (Verdin & Verdin 1999). The resulting polygon layers are termed HydroBASINS and represent a subset of the HydroSHEDS database. There are 12 levels. Level 6 represent sub river systems within level 3 basins.

Greater Mekong Subregion hydropower dams (2016)

Description This dataset contains all known hydropower developments across the Greater Mekong Subregion although is not a complete dataset. It includes original data collected by Open Development Cambodia and Open Development Vietnam as well as sources from International Rivers and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Challenge Program on Water and Food - Mekong.
Source(s) Sources vary data from Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and China come fromthe CIGAR-WLE dataset available: https://wle-mekong.cgiar.org/maps/. Other data was orignally georeferenced by PanNature for Vietnam and Open Development Cambodia using Google Earth Viewer. Other sources include; JICA, Final Report on Data Collection Survey on Electric Power Sector in Cambodia 2012 EDC, Annual Report 2014, Sub-decree No 202 on Privatization of 4,674 hectares in Vealveng district Pursat province, Company page of Kyung An Cable 2015, Earthrights international, lower_sesan 2015 Website of Mekong watchhttps://data.opendevelopmentmekong.net/dataset/lower-sesan-ii-hydropower-project/resource/01c9772c-ea28-408d-a212-1ac2781bc5ae?type=library_record NGO forum on Cambodia, EIA list Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Progress of Cambodia Power Development Plans & Transmission Interconnection Projects 2009, news from Phnom Penh post and Shanghai Daily. Along with a number of news and business publications in Vietnam.
Date of data 09/30/2016
Completeness This dataset is not complete and will be updated periodically.
License CC-BY-4.0

Global Food Security Product

Description The Global Food Security­ support Analysis Data Product provides spatial distribution of a disaggregated five class global cropland extent map derived at nominal 1­km based on four major studies: Thenkabail et al. (2009a, 2011), Pittman et al. (2010), Yu et al. (2013), and Friedl et al. (2010). This data represents Irrigated versus rainfed areas across the Lower Mekong Region.
Source(s) Global Food Security-Support Analysis Data at 30 m (GFSAD30) U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey http://geography.wr.usgs.gov/science/croplands/products.html
Date of data 09/19/2016
Completeness There are no known issues with completeness.
License unspecified

Main Tourist Sites

120 major GMS tourism sites. Attributes: site name, country, type of asset UNSECO WHS.

 

Major Urban Areas

A subset of the World Urban Areas representing the major urban areas (polygons), with populations greater than 10,000, for the Greater Mekong Subregion. 

Protected areas and heritage sites

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global spatial dataset on marine and terrestrial protected areas available. Protected areas are internationally recognised as a critical means of conserving species and ecosystems. Up to date information on protected areas is essential to enable a wide range of conservation and development activities. Since 1981 UNEP-WCMC, through its Protected Areas Programme, has been compiling this information and making it available to the global community. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and IUCN, produced by UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas working with governments and collaborating NGOs. 

Rail Links

Polygons of known existing, planned and potential railway links in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

 

Reservoirs

This point layer (GRanD_Reservoirs_v1_1) represents the locations and attribute information of reservoirs contained in the GRanD database, version 1.1. For details please refer to the Technical Documentation.

The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database contains the world's largest dams and their associated reservoirs. The database consists of two shapefiles: a point (dam) and a polygon (reservoir) layer. For details please refer to the Technical Documentation which accompanies the data.

Rivers

River systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Attributes include:  name of river, name of basin, name of sub-basin, Strahler number.

 

Seaports

A dataset containing all known seaports in the Greater Mekong Subregion as of 2014. There is geospatial coordinates, and a name and country available for all 68 facilities.

 

Special Economic Zones & Cross Border Economic Zones

416 SEZ and CBEZ including attributes (name, type, country and code).

 

Aqua Monitor Surface Land Gain (1985-2016)

Description The Deltares Aqua Monitor is an open tool that detects land and water conversions globally, during the last 30 years at 30m resolution. Results of the Aqua Monitor only show compound impacts of natural and human change or variability but does not look into water and sediment budgets which would be required to determine the causes of these changes. Static maps have been exported from the tool which displays accumulative land and water changes between 1985-2016. For further detail on the methodology see Nature Climate Change paper: http://nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n9/full/nclimate3111.html.
Source(s) Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Winsemius, Hessel; Gorelick, Noel; Kwadijk, Jaap; van de Giesen, Nick. "Earth's surface water change over the past 30 years". Nature Climate Change. 2016/09, volume 6, issue 9, page 810-813. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. SN - 1758-678X http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n9/full/nclimate3111.html
Date of data 09/01/2016
Completeness Preliminary analysis using the Aqua Monitor yields only static accumulated changes over the select periods and does not represent standing water. Calculations are only collected during years where images are available.
License unspecified

Aqua Monitor Surface Water Gain (1985-2016)

Description The Deltares Aqua Monitor is an open tool that detects land and water conversions globally, during the last 30 years at 30m resolution. Results of the Aqua Monitor only show compound impacts of natural and human change or variability but does not look into water and sediment budgets which would be required to determine the causes of these changes. Static maps have been exported from the tool which displays accumulative land and water changes between 1985-2016. For further detail on the methodology see Nature Climate Change paper: http://nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n9/full/nclimate3111.html.
Source(s) Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Winsemius, Hessel; Gorelick, Noel; Kwadijk, Jaap; van de Giesen, Nick. "Earth's surface water change over the past 30 years". Nature Climate Change. 2016/09, volume 6, issue 9, page 810-813. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. SN - 1758-678X http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n9/full/nclimate3111.html
Date of data 09/01/2016
Completeness Preliminary analysis using the Aqua Monitor yields only static accumulated changes over the select periods and does not represent standing water. Calculations are only collected during years where images are available.
License unspecified

Terrestrial Ecoregions

Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (TEOW) is a biogeographic regionalization of the Earth's terrestrial biodiversity. Our biogeographic units are ecoregions, which are defined as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities sharing a large majority of species, dynamics, and environmental conditions. There are 867 terrestrial ecoregions, classified into 14 different biomes such as forests, grasslands, or deserts. Ecoregions represent the original distribution of distinct assemblages of species and communities. There are multiple uses for TEOW in our efforts to conserve biodiversity around the world.

Total Blue Water

Total blue water (Bt) for each catchment is the accumulated runoff upstream of the catchment plus the runoff in the catchment.

 

Tree cover (2000)

A dataset visualising tree cover across the Greater Mekong Subregion at 30 x 30m resolution (2000). For the purpose of this study, “tree cover” was defined as all vegetation taller than 5 meters in height. “Tree cover” is the biophysical presence of trees and may take the form of natural forests or plantations existing over a range of canopy densities. Dataset is encoded as a percentage per output grid cell, in the range 0-100. Sourced from Landsat 7 ETM+. Open Development Mekong has trimmed this data to the area of interest visualised here.

 

Tree cover gain 2000-2012

Production date: 2012

Description: Forest gain during the period 2000–2012, defined as the inverse of loss, or a non-forest to forest change entirely within the study period. Encoded as either 1 (gain) or 0 (no gain). For the purpose of this study, “tree cover” was defined as all vegetation taller than 5 meters in height. “Tree cover” is the biophysical presence of trees and may take the form of natural forests or plantations existing over a range of canopy densities. “Loss” indicates the removal or mortality of tree canopy cover and can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, “loss” does not equate to deforestation.

 This data set measures areas of tree cover gain at 30 × 30 meter resolution, displayed as a 12-year cumulative layer. The data were generated using multispectral satellite imagery from the Landsat 7 thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensor. Over 600,000 Landsat 7 images were compiled and analyzed using Google Earth Engine, a cloud platform for earth observation and data analysis. The clear land surface observations (30 × 30 meter pixels) in the satellite images were assembled and a supervised learning algorithm was then applied to identify per pixel tree cover gain.

Tree cover gain was defined as the establishment of tree canopy at the Landsat pixel scale in an area that previously had no tree cover. Tree cover gain may indicate a number of potential activities, including natural forest growth or the crop rotation cycle of tree plantations. Open Development Mekong has trimmed this data to the area of interest visualised here.

Source: Global Forest Watch / Hansen, M. C., P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova, A. Tyukavina, D. Thau, S. V. Stehman, S. J. Goetz, T. R. Loveland, A. Kommareddy, A. Egorov, L. Chini, C. O. Justice, and J. R. G. Townshend. 2013. “Hansen/UMD/Google/USGS/NASA Tree Cover Loss and Gain Area.” University of Maryland, Google, USGS, and NASA.

Tree cover loss 2000-2013

Production date: 2015

Description: A dataset describing forest loss during the period 2000–2013, defined as a stand-replacement disturbance, or a change from a forest to non-forest state. Encoded as either 1 (loss) or 0 (no loss).

This data layer was updated in January 2015 to extend the tree cover loss analysis to 2013. The 2013 data update included new Landsat 8 data (launched in February 2013) as well as re-processed 2010-2012 data from Landsat TM and ETM+, which increased the amount of change that could be detected, resulting in some changes in calculated tree cover loss for 2011 (global increase of 6%) and 2012 (increase of 22%). Calculated tree cover loss for 2001-2010 remains unchanged. The integrated use of the original 2001-2012 (Version 1.0) data and the updated 2011–2013 data (Version 1.1) should be performed with caution.

The data were generated using multispectral satellite imagery from the Landsat 7 thematic mapper plus (ETM+), and Landsat 7 thematic mapper plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensors. Over 1 million satellite images were processed and analyzed, including over 600,000 Landsat 7 images for the 2000-2012 interval, and approximately 400,000 Landsat 5,7 and 8 images for the 2010-2013 interval . The clear land surface observations in the satellite images were assembled and a supervised learning algorithm was applied to identify per pixel tree cover loss.

Tree cover loss is defined as “stand replacement disturbance,” or the complete removal of tree cover canopy at the Landsat pixel scale. Tree cover loss may be the result of human activities, including forestry practices such as timber harvesting or deforestation (the conversion of natural forest to other land uses), as well as natural causes such as disease or storm damage. Fire is another widespread cause of tree cover loss, and can be either natural or human-induced.

For the purpose of this study, “tree cover” was defined as all vegetation taller than 5 meters in height. “Tree cover” is the biophysical presence of trees and may take the form of natural forests or plantations existing over a range of canopy densities. “Loss” indicates the removal or mortality of tree canopy cover and can be due to a variety of factors, including mechanical harvesting, fire, disease, or storm damage. As such, “loss” does not equate to deforestation.

Open Development Mekong has trimmed this data to the area of interest visualised here.

Source: Global Forest Watch / Hansen, M. C., P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova, A. Tyukavina, D. Thau, S. V. Stehman, S. J. Goetz, T. R. Loveland, A. Kommareddy, A. Egorov, L. Chini, C. O. Justice, and J. R. G. Townshend. 2013. “Hansen/UMD/Google/USGS/NASA Tree Cover Loss and Gain Area.” University of Maryland, Google, USGS, and NASA.

Upstream Protected Lands

Upstream protected land measures the percentage of total water supply that originates from protected ecosystems. Modified land use can affect the health of freshwater ecosystems and have severe downstream impacts on both water quality and quantity.

 

Withdrawal Rates

Total withdrawal is the total amount of water removed from freshwater sources for human use.

 

 

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