The flooding in HCM City is becoming more serious despite money spent on solutions to prevent floods. The filling of canals with rubbish and the illegal building on waterway banks have both slowed canal drainage. A report of the HCMC Anti-flooding Center shows that the number of roads suffering from inundation in heavy rains and high tides had reached 59 by October 2016. Meanwhile, the figures were 50 in 2010, 32 in 2011, 21 in 2012 and 50 in 2013. The situation improved with only 10 roads flooded in 2015, but then unexpectedly rose to 59 by October 2016. Hoang Minh Tri, deputy head of the HCMC Institute for Development Studies, attributes the serious flooding to the rapid urbanization and mismanagement. Many lowland areas have become residential quarters and industrial zones in the last 20 years, thus prolonging water stagnation. Many reasons have been cited, including uncontrolled road excavation, littering and canal encroachment.