For more than two decades, communities in Southeast Asia have been facing threats from the expansion of hydropower development. Dams have been justified by the governments of Southeast Asian countries as the main development agenda, which would generate large amounts of income and contribute to poverty alleviation. For example, Thailand’s expansion of energy consumption by investing in neighboring countries such as Laos and Myanmar is a trend designed to increase energy imports to sustain Thailand’s energy security. While Laos is being used as the “Battery of Asia,” hydropower dominates their national development agenda and selling electricity to the neighboring countries is the prime discussion among policymakers. Myanmar is catching up with trends, with coal mines and dams both listed in national development agendas.